"GUIDE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BICYCLE FACILITIES" [AMERICAN
ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS, AUGUST,
"Bicycle facilities must not encourage or require bicyclists to
operate in a manner inconsistent with the adopted Rules of the Road."
"TWO-WAY BICYCLE LANES...PROMOTE RIDING AGAINST THE FLOW OF MOTOR
VEHICLE TRAFFIC. WRONG-WAY RIDING IS A MAJOR CAUSE OF BICYCLE
ACCIDENTS." "BICYCLE LANES TEND TO COMPLICATE BOTH BICYCLE AND MOTOR
VEHICLE TURNING MOVEMENTS AT INTERSECTIONS." [Emphasis added.]
"...A SEPARATED BIKEWAY SYSTEM COMPOSED OF BICYCLE PATHS AND
LANES... IN FACT, SUCH SYSTEMS CAN BE UNNECESSARILY EXPENSIVE
[emphasis added] and do not provide for the vast majority of bicycle
travel. Existing highways, often with relatively inexpensive
improvements, must serve as the base system to provide for the travel
needs of bicyclists."
"Improvements for motor vehicles...should avoid adverse impacts
on bicycling." "...overall goals for transportation improvements
should, wherever possible, include the enhancement of bicycling."
"Roadway and roadway maintenance improvements can reduce conflicts
between pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists and can correct
conditions unsafe for bicycle riding." "Roadway conditions should be
examined and, where necessary, safe drainage grates and railroad
crossings, smooth pavements, and signals responsive to bicycle should
be provided." "It is important that grates and utility covers be
adjusted flush with the surface, including after a roadway is
resurfaced." "The grates should be replaced with bicycle-safe and
hydraulically efficient ones."
"Neglected maintenance will render bicycle facilities unrideable,
AND THE FACILITIES WILL BECOME A LIABILITY TO THE STATE OR COMMUNITY."
[Emphasis added.] "It is usually more desirable not to construct a
bicycle facility than to construct a poorly planned or designed
facility. ...emphasis should usually be given to low-cost
improvements (e.g., bicycle parking, -- ["Bicycle parking facilities
are essential to encourage utilitarian bicycling. To be efffective,
bicycle parking must offer protection from theft and vandalism.
Desirably, it should also provide protection from weather damage."] --
removal of barriers and obstructions to bicycle travel, roadway
improvements, and nonconstruction projects such as mapping.)"
"In general, multi-use paths are undesirable; bicycles and
pedestrians do not mix well." "Walkers, joggers, skateboarders, and
roller skaters can, and often do, change their speed and direction
almost instantaneously leaving bicyclists insufficient time to react
to avoid collisions." "Similarly, pedestrians often have difficulty
predicting the direction of an oncoming bicyclist will take."
"BICYCLE PATHS CAN INVOLVE CONFLICTS BETWEEN BICYCLISTS, MOPED
OPERATORS, ROLLER SKATERS AND PEDESTRIANS on the facility AND BETWEEN
BICYCLISTS AND MOTORISTS AT HIGHWAY AND DRIVEWAY INTERSECTIONS." "A
HIGH PROPORTION OF BICYCLE ACCIDENTS OCCUR AT INTERSECTIONS."
[Emphasis added.] "At intersections, motorists are often not looking
for bicyclists...particularly when motorists are making a turn. Sight
distance is often impaired by buildings, walls, property fences, and
shrubs...especially at driveways."
"Some problems with bike paths located immediately adjacent to a
roadways are as follows:
(1) Unless paired, they REQUIRE ONE DIRECTION OF BICYCLE TRAFFIC
TO RIDE AGAINST MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC, [emphasis added] contrary to
normal Rules of the Road.
(2) When the bicycle path ends, bicyclists going against traffic
will tend to continue to travel on the wrong side of the street.
Likewise, bicyclists approaching a bicycle path often travel on the
wrong side of the street in getting to the path. WRONG-WAY TRAVEL BY
BICYCLISTS IS MAJOR CAUSE OF BICYCLE/AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS. [Emphasis
(3) AT INTERSECTIONS [emphasis added] motorists entering or
crossing the roadway often will not notice bicyclists coming from the
right, as they are not expecting contra-flow vehicles. Even
bicyclists coming from the left often go unnoticed, especially when
sight distances are poor.
(4) When constructed in narrow roadway right of way, the shoulder
is often sacrificed, thereby decreasing safety for motorists and
bicyclists using the roadway.
(5) MANY BICYCLISTS WILL USE THE ROADWAY INSTEAD OF THE BICYCLE
PATH BECAUSE THEY HAVE FOUND THE ROADWAY TO BE SAFER, MORE CONVENIENT,
OR BETTER MAINTAINED. BICYCLISTS USING THE ROADWAY ARE OFTEN
SUBJECTED TO HARRASSMENT BY MOTORISTS WHO FEEL THAT IN ALL CASES
BICYCLISTS SHOULD BE ON THE PATH INSTEAD. [Emphasis added.]
(6) Bicyclists using the bicycle path generally are required to
stop or yield at ALL [emphasis added] cross streets and driveways,
WHILE BICYCLISTS USING THE ROADWAY USUALLY HAVE PRIORITY OVER CROSS
TRAFFIC, BECAUSE THEY HAVE THE SAME RIGHT OF WAY AS MOTORISTS.
(7) Stopped cross street motor vehicle traffic or vehicles exiting
side streets or driveways may block the path crossing."
"FOR THE ABOVE REASONS,...WIDE CURB LANES OR SHARED ROADWAYS MAY
BE THE BEST WAY TO ACCOMODATE BICYCLE TRAFFIC ALONG HIGHWAY
CORRIDORS..." [Emphasis added.]
"...WIDE CURB LANES SHOULD BE CONSIDERED." [Emphasis added.] In
general, a lane width of 14 feet (4.3 m) of USABLE [emphasis added]
width is desired. Usable width would normally be from curb face to
lane stripe, or from edge line to lane stripe, but adjustments need to
made for drainage grates, parking, and longtitudal ridges between
pavement and gutter sections." "Restriping to provide wide curb lanes
may also be considered on some existing multi-lane facilities by
making the remaining travel lanes and left turn lanes narrower."