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"GUIDE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BICYCLE FACILITIES" [AMERICAN

ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION  OFFICIALS, AUGUST,

1991] EXCERPTS:

 

 

     "Bicycle facilities must not encourage or require bicyclists to

operate in a manner inconsistent with the adopted Rules of the Road."

"TWO-WAY BICYCLE LANES...PROMOTE RIDING AGAINST THE FLOW OF MOTOR

VEHICLE TRAFFIC.  WRONG-WAY RIDING IS A MAJOR CAUSE OF BICYCLE

ACCIDENTS."  "BICYCLE LANES TEND TO COMPLICATE BOTH BICYCLE AND MOTOR

VEHICLE TURNING MOVEMENTS AT INTERSECTIONS."  [Emphasis added.]

 

     "...A SEPARATED BIKEWAY SYSTEM COMPOSED OF BICYCLE PATHS AND

LANES...  IN FACT, SUCH SYSTEMS CAN BE UNNECESSARILY EXPENSIVE

[emphasis added] and do not provide for the vast majority of bicycle

travel.  Existing highways, often with relatively inexpensive

improvements, must serve as the base system to provide for the travel

needs of bicyclists."

 

     "Improvements for motor vehicles...should avoid adverse impacts

on bicycling."  "...overall goals for transportation improvements

should, wherever possible, include the enhancement of bicycling."

"Roadway and roadway maintenance improvements can reduce conflicts

between pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists and can correct

conditions unsafe for bicycle riding."  "Roadway conditions should be

examined and, where necessary, safe drainage grates and railroad

crossings, smooth pavements, and signals responsive to bicycle should

be provided."   "It is important that grates and utility covers be

adjusted flush with the surface, including after a roadway is

resurfaced."  "The grates should be replaced with bicycle-safe and

hydraulically efficient ones."

 

     "Neglected maintenance will render bicycle facilities unrideable,

AND THE FACILITIES WILL BECOME A LIABILITY TO THE STATE OR COMMUNITY."

[Emphasis added.]  "It is usually more desirable not to construct a

bicycle facility than to construct a poorly planned or designed

facility.  ...emphasis should usually be given to low-cost

improvements (e.g., bicycle parking, -- ["Bicycle parking facilities

are essential to encourage utilitarian bicycling.  To be efffective,

bicycle parking must offer protection from theft and vandalism.

Desirably, it should also provide protection from weather damage."] --

removal of barriers and obstructions to bicycle travel, roadway

improvements, and nonconstruction projects such as mapping.)"

 

      "In general, multi-use paths are undesirable; bicycles and

pedestrians do not mix well."  "Walkers, joggers, skateboarders, and

roller skaters can, and often do, change their speed and direction

almost instantaneously leaving bicyclists insufficient time to react

to avoid collisions."  "Similarly, pedestrians often have difficulty

predicting the direction of an oncoming bicyclist will take."

"BICYCLE PATHS CAN INVOLVE CONFLICTS BETWEEN BICYCLISTS, MOPED

OPERATORS, ROLLER SKATERS AND PEDESTRIANS on the facility AND BETWEEN

BICYCLISTS AND MOTORISTS AT HIGHWAY AND DRIVEWAY INTERSECTIONS."  "A

HIGH PROPORTION OF BICYCLE ACCIDENTS OCCUR AT INTERSECTIONS."

[Emphasis added.]  "At intersections, motorists are often not looking

for bicyclists...particularly when motorists are making a turn.  Sight

distance is often impaired by buildings, walls, property fences, and

shrubs...especially at driveways."

 

     "Some problems with bike paths located immediately adjacent to a

roadways are as follows:

 

   (1)  Unless paired, they REQUIRE ONE DIRECTION OF BICYCLE TRAFFIC

TO RIDE AGAINST MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC, [emphasis added] contrary to

normal Rules of the Road.

 

   (2)  When the bicycle path ends, bicyclists going against traffic

will tend to continue to travel on the wrong side of the street.

Likewise, bicyclists approaching a bicycle path often travel on the

wrong side of the street in getting to the path.  WRONG-WAY TRAVEL BY

BICYCLISTS IS MAJOR CAUSE OF BICYCLE/AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS.  [Emphasis

added.]

 

   (3)  AT INTERSECTIONS [emphasis added] motorists entering or

crossing the roadway often will not notice bicyclists coming from the

right, as they are not expecting contra-flow vehicles.  Even

bicyclists coming from the left often go unnoticed, especially when

sight distances are poor.

 

   (4)  When constructed in narrow roadway right of way, the shoulder

is often sacrificed, thereby decreasing safety for motorists and

bicyclists using the roadway.

 

   (5)  MANY BICYCLISTS WILL USE THE ROADWAY INSTEAD OF THE BICYCLE

PATH BECAUSE THEY HAVE FOUND THE ROADWAY TO BE SAFER, MORE CONVENIENT,

OR BETTER MAINTAINED.  BICYCLISTS USING THE ROADWAY ARE OFTEN

SUBJECTED TO HARRASSMENT BY MOTORISTS WHO FEEL THAT IN ALL CASES

BICYCLISTS SHOULD BE ON THE PATH INSTEAD. [Emphasis added.]

 

   (6)  Bicyclists using the bicycle path generally are required to

stop or yield at ALL [emphasis added] cross streets and driveways,

WHILE BICYCLISTS USING THE ROADWAY USUALLY HAVE PRIORITY OVER CROSS

TRAFFIC, BECAUSE THEY HAVE THE SAME RIGHT OF WAY AS MOTORISTS.

[Emphasis added.]

 

   (7)  Stopped cross street motor vehicle traffic or vehicles exiting

side streets or driveways may block the path crossing."

 

     "FOR THE ABOVE REASONS,...WIDE CURB LANES OR SHARED ROADWAYS MAY

BE THE BEST WAY TO ACCOMODATE BICYCLE TRAFFIC ALONG HIGHWAY

CORRIDORS..."  [Emphasis added.]

 

     "...WIDE CURB LANES SHOULD BE CONSIDERED."  [Emphasis added.]  In

general, a lane width of 14 feet (4.3 m) of USABLE [emphasis added]

width is desired.  Usable width would normally be from curb face to

lane stripe, or from edge line to lane stripe, but adjustments need to

made for drainage grates, parking, and longtitudal ridges between

pavement and gutter sections."  "Restriping to provide wide curb lanes

may also be considered on some existing multi-lane facilities by

making the remaining travel lanes and left turn lanes narrower."



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